Vitamin k (Phylloquinone)

Vitamin k

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin with two forms. The most common type is phylloquinone, which can be found in green leafy vegetables such as collard greens, kale, and spinach. Menaquinones, the other type, are found in some animal foods and fermented foods. Bacteria in the human body can also produce menaquinones.

Role of vitamin k

Vitamin K aids in the production of various proteins required for blood clotting and bone formation. Prothrombin is a Phylloquinone-dependent protein that plays a direct role in blood clotting. Another protein that requires Phylloquinone to produce healthy bone tissue is osteocalcin.

Phylloquinone can be found in many parts of the body, including the liver, brain, heart, pancreas, and bone. It degrades quickly and is excreted in urine or stool. As a result, even at high doses, it rarely reaches toxic levels in the body, as can happen with other fat-soluble vitamins.

What are the foods that are high in Vitamin K?

  • Collard and turnip greens.
  • Kale.
  • Spinach.
  • Broccoli.
  • Brussels sprouts.
  • Cabbage.
  • lettuce and all green leafy vegetables.
  • Canola and soybean oil.
  • Salad dressings are made with canola or soybean oil.
  • Meal replacement shakes with added nutrients.

Fruits that contain vitamin k

Fruits do not generally contain as much vitamin K-1 as leafy green vegetables, but a few do.

Blackberries (12% DV per serving)

  • 1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% DV).
  • 20 mcg (17% of the DV) per 100 g.

Blueberries (12% DV per serving)

  • 1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% DV).
  • 19 mcg (16% DV) per 100 grams

Pomegranate (12% DV per serving)

  • 1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% DV).
  • 16 mcg (14% DV) per 100 grams

Dried figs — 6% DV per serving 

  • 5 pieces: 6.6 mcg (6% of the daily value)
  • 16 mcg (13% DV) per 100 gram

Sun-dried tomatoes — 4% of the DV per serving 

  • 5 pieces: 4.3 mcg (4% of the daily value)
  • 100 grams: 43 mcg (36% DV).

Grapes contain 3% of the DV per serving.

  • 10 grapes = 3.5 mcg (3% DV).
  • 15 mcg (12% of the DV) per 100 g

Red currants — 3% of the DV per serving 

  • 1 ounce serving: 3.1 mcg (3% of the daily value)
  • 11 mcg (9% of DV) per 100 g

How much vitamin k can we consume on a daily basis?

When there is insufficient evidence to establish a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), a “adequate intake” (AI) is used (RDA). The AI amount is calculated to ensure nutritional sufficiency. The AI for vitamin K for adults 19 years and older is 120 micrograms (mcg) daily for men and 90 mcg daily for women and those who are pregnant or lactating.

which dairy products contain vitamin k

Total vitamin K concentrations in full-fat yogurt, Greek yogurt, cottage cheese, and cheddar cheese were 28.18.9 g/100 g, 30.16.5 g/100 g, 54.28.3 g/100 g, and 28.241.3 g/100 g, respectively. Blue cheese, fresh cheese, soft-ripened cheese, and semi-soft cheese had total vitamin K contents of 439129, 309204, 495214, and 310126 g/100 g, respectively. Non-fermented cheeses, like processed cheese, had lower Phylloquinone levels (90.937.9 g/100 g). Full-fat dairy products had significant amounts of MK, primarily in the forms of MK9, MK10, and MK11, which accounted for 90% of total Phylloquinone in dairy foods. We also found trace amounts of MK4 and MK12. In contrast, the majority of dairy products contained very little MK5, MK6, MK7, or MK13.

The total vitamin K content of full-fat milk, 2% milk, 1% milk, and nonfat milk was 38.18%, 19.47%, 12.92.0, and 7.72.9 g/100 g, respectively. Reduced fat or fat-free dairy products (Greek yogurt, yogurt, cottage cheese, and cheddar cheese) had 8-22% of the vitamin K content of full-fat products.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the MK content of dairy products in the United States. The fat content of dairy products influences Phylloquinone content. If the biological activity of MK in foods is proven, dairy may play an important dietary role in vitamin K nutrition.

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